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Aileron Trim Tab
Aileron Bellcrank
Air Box Repair
Air Duct/Spar
Air filter Gasket
Air filter mods
Airfoil story
Alternate Parts sources
Alternate Air Door
  '68 CB
  Circuit Breaker
  Circuit Breaker kit
  Whine and noises
  OV switch
Ammeter blip
Amsafe Install
Antenna Mount
Annual Inspection
  300AP transistors
  300AP hints
Avionics Air Scoop

Back seat removal
Baffle Mods
Baffle Rebuild
'68 Baffle Mods
Baggage door seal
Baggage latch spring
Baggage Bulkhead
BAS seat belt
Battery lid mod
Bellcrank, Aileron
Belly Cleaning
Bike Rack
Brackett Air Filter
Brake hose FG
Brake master FG
Brake master rebuild
Brake hose RG
Brake Swivel (RG)
'Braly Mod'
Bulkhead repair ('68)
Bungee (Steering)
Bus Bar repair

Camera Windows
Carb Data
Carbon Monoxide
Case mods
CAT tubing replace
Charging Debug
Chart desk/table
Compass leaks
Concorde Lid Mod
Console Repair
Connector options
Console: add-on
Cntrl Column Bearings
Cntrl Column Bushings
Cooling Cylinders
Cooling in Climb
Cover review
  '71 mods
  Bumper 2
  Camloc Fasteners
  Camloc Issues
  Camloc Evolution
  Chafing Mods
  Flap cable replace
  Flap exit ramp
  Flap fences
  Flap bumpers
  Flap Exit
  Flap Effectiveness
  Rubs on Spinner
  Southco fasteners
  Custom Inlets
  Inlet Fences
Cylinder Cooling
Cylinder cooling details
Cylinder "doghouse"
Cylinder inspection

Data Plate
Dash cover fab
Defroster fan
D Engine Swap
  FG details
  RG details
  IO390 install
  Governor modifications
Display repair
  Fuse damage
  Handles - inside
  Handles - outside
  Handle spring
  Hinge reinforcement
  Hinge repairs
  Latch Clutch
  Pin alignment
  Seal replacement
  Seal source
  Spring replacement
Doubler repairs
Drilled yoke
Dual Speaker (overhead)
Dual Mag install
Dukes Fuel Pump

Elevator: see Stabilator
Electrical Noise
Electrical Parts
Electrical Connectors
Elevator Trim Rod clearance
Engine baffle mods
Engine Cables
Engine Gages
Engine mount
Engine swap (D)
Engine Upgrade '68
  180 HP O-360
  IO-360 RG engine
Exhaust fairings

FG Gear Adjust
FG fuel pump rebuild
FG Strut Rebuild
FG Strut Rebuild 2
Firewall Forward mod
FG Jacking
FG Fuel Flow
  Adjust Problems
  Follow-up cable
  Follow-up cable Options
  Motor source
  Rigging hints
Flood light
Fuel Caps
  Flush Cap rebuild
  Monarch thoughts
  Monarch Install story
  Replacement Options
  Umbrella dissection
  Aux Tanks
  Drain valve
  Dukes Pump(RG)
  Dukes Pump Option
  Feeding unevenly
  Flow FG
  Gage info
  Header Tank leak
  Hose replacement
  Indicator repair
  Pump (Weldon)(RG)
  Pump rebuild (FG)
  Quick Drain (FG)
  Shutoff issues
  Shutoff rebuild (FG)
  RG Selector Valve rebuild
  FG Selector Valve rebuild
  Tip Vent
  Vent leak (crossover)
  Weldon Fuel Pump (RG)
'68 Fuse Repair

Gap Seals
Garmin 500 install
Gear Indicator lights
Gear Leg Adjust (FG)
Gear Light Secrets
Gear Magnets
Gear Mirror
Gear pump brushes
Gear pump Diagnosis
Gear pump 'bumps'
Gear Pump Light
Gear pump rebuild '78
Gear wobble (FG)
Governor bracket mods
Governer control lube
Governer plate
Gov plate: One Mech's View
Governer Surge
Grab Handle Clip
Green Goo

Handicapped passengers
Handle Clip
Headlight Replacement
Headliner R & R
Heater improvements
  Exhaust fan
  Bulkhead seal
  Aux heat tube
  Tailcone mods (RG)
  Flow Improvement
  Underseat fans
Heavy Wing
Horton STOL
Hose Standoffs
HP Plus Mod
Hydraulic Hoses (RG)

Ignition: Lasar
Injection system
Injector Clamps
Intake Manifold Seal
Intake Manifold Drain
Intercom noise
Interior parts
Interior Rework

Jacking the FG
Jacking the RG
Jack options
Jack buying
Jack building
Jacks: my design
Jon's Workbench

King display repair
Kinzie presentation
Kinzie install

Landing Gear (FG)
Landing Lights
Landing Light Replacement
Lasar Ignition
LED Lights
 Courtesy lights
 Dimming filter
 Gear indicators
 Tail Beacon
 Wing tips
Light (flood)
Lighting troubleshoot

Magnets (gear)
Mag Install (dual
Magneto points
Manifold Pressure gauge
Master cylinder rebuild
Mixture cable (Cablecraft)
Mixture Cable Attach
Monarch Fuel Cap Install
  Bracket Removal
  Clamp (RG)

Nav Light Indicator
Nose Gear
  Actuator rebuild
  Arm pad
  Drag link cracks (RG)
  Door Hinge (RG)
  Door wear
  NG Door Grommets
  Door Grommet option
  Door Bumper
  Scissor bolt shearing
  Strut Rebuild (RG)
  Strut Rebuild (FG)
  Strut Rebuild 2 (FG)
  Door Triming
  Uplock Roller (RG)

Oil Canister issues
Oil Cooler Baffle (RG)
Oil Cooler Info
Oil Cooler Hoses
Oil Cooler gap (RG)
Oil Cooler upgrade (RG)
Oil Draining tricks
Oil Filter (D) Adapter
Oil Filter Cutting
Oil leaks
Oil line: prop
Oil Paths
Oil Pump
Oil Separator
Oil Screen (FG)
Oil Screen (RG)
Omni antenna
Overhead Console Repair
Over Voltage Sensor
O/V switch wiring
Owner Maintenance

Panel forming
Panel Project
Panel Tilt
  Colin's Paint Story
  Hints and Tips from Guy
  RG Colors
  FG Colors
  Painting templates
Pitot-Static Troubleshooting
Plane Power VR
Preflight Inspection
Prop control lube
Prop oil line
Prop oil line fitting
Prop Surge
Prop Torque
PTT options
PTT in Yoke
PWM filter
Pump rebuild: gear


Radio noises
Rain leaks
Retractable Gear (RG)
  (Also see 'Gear')
  Alternate Air Door
  Ammeter blip
  Brake Swivel
  Configuration (by year)
  Downlock rebuild
  Early switches
  Gear Leg removal tool
  Gear Lights
  Gear Magnets
  Gear Mirror
  Gear Selector Rebuild
  Gear pump 'bumps'
  Gear pump diag/light
  Internal Leak
  Leg pin removal tool
  Lock Valve rebuild
  Light design
  Light socket
  Main Gear Pin
  Main Rod End
  Main Rod End Sources
  Mechanical switches
  MG up-bumper
  MG Saddle Replace
  MG Saddle Repair
  MG actuator bracket
  NG Door wear
  NG drag link
  NG Hoses
  NG Swinging
  NG Switch wire
  NG arm pad
  NG Door Trim
  Parts (by year)
  Pressure Switch
  Pump brushes
  Pump Bump
  '78 Pump bypass leak
  Pump Internals
  '71-3 Pump Manifold
  Pump rebuild '78
  Pump Shuttle Valve
  Reed switch
  Reed switch rebuild
  Rod End
  Rod End sources
  Selector Rebuild
  Service Bulletins
  Speaker (gear warn)
  Squat switch wire
  Shuttle Valve
  Switch rebuild
  Throttle switch arm
  Throttle switch example
  Uplock Roller (RG)
  Warning cam
  Warning horn
Rear seat removal
RG stall switch repair
Rope trick
Rosen Sun visors
Royalite Replacements
Rudder shimmy
Rudder trim

SCAT tubing installation
Screw Removal
Seats, rear
Seat belts for 2
Seat pivot
Seat rails
Serial numbers
Service Bulletins
Shimmy dampener
  RG rebuild
  FG issues
  More FG
  FG solution
Shoulder harness
Sniffle Valve
Sill seal installation
Sound Proofing
Sound Insulation
Southco fasteners
  AD inspection
  Cap inspection
  Cap cracks (177)
  Cap cracks (210)
  Carrythrough AMOC
  Carry-thru Bottom inspection
  Attach Pins
  Carry-thru Repair
  Repair avoidance
  '68 Bracket Crack
Speaker (overhead)
Speed mods
Spinner Baffle
Spinner Issues
  '68 Spinner
  Paul's Spinner
  Chuck's Spinner
  Rubs on Cowl
Stall switch rebuild
STD Temp
Sticking Valve
Stinger Screw Map
Steering Bungee
Squat Switch
  Wing Tiedown Ring
  Door holdopen
Squat Switch
  Bracket cracks
  Bracket inspection
  Bracket rework
  Bracket fasteners
  Bushing fabrication
  Creaking noises
  More Brackets
  Trim Rod clearance
  '68 Stab attach
Stall switch
Standby Alternator
Starter Troubleshooting
Static System Troubleshooting
S-Tec autopilot
Step removal
STOL kit
Strobes, adding
Strut rebuild (RG)
Strut Rebuild (FG)

Tach cable
Tailcone Bird cover
Tailcone Screw Map
Throttle cable
Throttle cam
Tiedown Ring spring
Tilt in Panel
  Air Foil Bearings
  Heat Exchanger
  Install Info
  FG Virtual tour
  RG Virtual tour
  Paul's pics
  Parts List
  Power Setting
  System Overview
  Operations Manual
  Vacuum Seal
  Vince's pics
  Keith's pics
Type Cert Data

Uplock Actuator (RG)
  Umbrella fuel cap
Uneven Fuel Feed

Vacuum Seal
Valve sticking
Vent Hoses
Vent window crank
 Vent Example
Vernatherm Details
Vernatherm Theory
Vernatherm Tool
Vernatherm Fix
Voltage Drop: starter
Voltage Regulator
Voltage low on bus
Vortex Generators
VG Installation

Water leaks
Wheelchair lift
Wheel Pant Upgrade
Wheel hub cracks
Whisker antenna
Windshield leaks
Window replacement
Window crank, vent
Wing Air Inlets
Wing Pins
Wing removal
Wing Rigging
Wing smoothing
Wing Tiedown Ring
Wing tip mods
Wing Vent hoses
Wing wiring plug
Wire Standoffs


Yoke Drilling
Yoke Bearings
Yoke Bushings


'68 177's with RG Engines

One of the most common questions I get is whether it is possible to install a 200 HP IO-360 engine into a 1968 177 fixed gear. At times folks propose a similar change to other years of FG, which would share the same challenges.

It has been done to a very few '68 Cardinals. So the simple answer is yes, but doing so is not simple. There is no STC available, although at least one was done under a one time STC (which can't be used as data for another installation.)

Based on stories shared across history, at least these following challenges need to be addressed:
  • Cooling dynamics are very different at slower FG speeds. Cardinals which have been converted (see below) usually struggle with heat.

  • The fuel pressure required for an RG is 10PSI, where the FG runs around 3PSI, requiring signification changes to the FG fuel system.

  • Fuel flow requirements would be higher, perhaps requiring a redesign of the FG fuel paths.

  • Substantial changes are required to the airframe to covert the FG front end to an RG front end, with differences in things like rudder trim and steering.

  • Certification has become more difficult since the time when the existing aircraft were signed off.

  • Some theorize that a strict reading of FAA regulations leaves room for such an upgrade, as long as the power increase is within 10%. However what's needed is not just compliance, but also someone within the FAA who agrees and is capable of approving, plus willing to accept the career risk which we have learned comes with that approval.

Perhaps the most important question is whether you would really want to do this change? A new engine will weigh more, and won't increase the gross weight of the airframe, which is lower than later (or RG) Cardinals. There are often reported issues with heat, and many have found that certification can be a very significant challenge.

The more accurate answer to the question is that it would be difficult, and the resulting airplane would not be particularly desirable.

To my knowledge there are 5 Cardinals which have this modification made, and one rumored mystery ship we have not yet found. The information below captures what I can find about these aircraft from my records in 1/2022. With luck and over time I hope we can capture the details of all of these Cardinals as well as possible on this page.

If you have one of these and can add more info, or have information about one not listed here, please let me know.

As an interesting aside, there is also one '68 with an injected engine which is not 200 HP. It has an IO-360-B1B engine, a parallel valve 180 HP injected engine. That engine was originally built as an IO-360-B1E, installed in a Piper. Then later it was converted to an IO-360-B1B and installed in a Beech Travel Air. That Cardinal is N30157, serial 17701086.

Keith Peterson

Current known 1968 Cardinal 177 aircraft with a 200 HP injected engine:

(Most recent information first)

N68VV (Serial: 17700898)
  • Listed for sale in Trade A Plane January 2022.
  • From the owner in 2022: This cardinal started its life in Canada under registration CF-WVU and stayed there until 1995 when is was parked (indoors) and sat until it was rescued in 2005. In 1984 an STC was filed with transport Canada to install an IO360 from a 1974 Cardinal 177RG (C-GUNY) SN-RG475 donor aircraft and it was approved. It was transferred to the United States in 2006 and the work began on restoring the entire airframe/engine.
  • Owned by Chad Vanderhoof in Elk, WA in the 2006 timeframe
  • Owned by Mark White (West Virginia) in the 2022 timeframe
N2347Y (Serial: 17700147
  • Owned by Keith Proctor as of 8/2022 in PA
  • As of 2022 was listed as being in Paint Lick, KY
  • Listed for sale in Hurricane, UT in the 2020 timeframe
  • Owned since 2000 (at least) by Mark J Perini
  • Seen in the Seattle area in the 2006 timeframe.
  • Owned by Noel Keefer around 1998
C-FWXO (Serial: 17700648)
  • Owned by Michael Anderson in Calgary, Alberta in 2006
  • Owned by John Cardiff in Calgary, Alberta around 1998, asking about W&B issues.
C-GELB (Serial: 17700865)
  • Owned by Glen Wright in 2022
  • Information from the owner in 2022:

    It started life as N29402 serial number 17700865 and appears to have spent much of its life in Texas. It was apparently imported to Canada in 1998, and from what we can tell it was disassembled at some point for unknown reasons.

    A fellow named George Pohl purchased it in 2004. At that time, Transport Canada allowed some discretion with respect to the "more than 50% rule" and he managed to reassemble and re-register this aircraft as amateur-built at that time. In 2008 TC issued a staff direction which basically ended conversions of commercially built aircraft to amateur-built.

    It was renamed on it's aircraft registration as part of the conversion and is now known as a "Pohl 177 Canary" serial number 001. Aircraft registration is C-GELB. TC also allowed an increase of the gross weight up to 2600 pounds. It has a modified cowl for the IO-360 and a constant speed prop but otherwise looks like a '68.

N30208 (Serial 17701121)
  • As of 2022 based in Key West FL.
  • Owned by a Community College in Iowa for some time.
  • Based for a while in Clovis, CA.
  • Sold by John Lawson in 2001
  • Had a hard landing, bending the firewall and boot cowls, (perhaps around 1996?)
  • Owned at one point by John Lawson (who had a hook for his right hand.)
  • Said to have an engine from a Mooney in 2004.
  • Reported to have been initially done by Horton around 1980.
N???? - the mystery ship
  • Listed for sale in TAP in August of 2017
  • Reportedly built by a tech school in Colorado.
  • Rumored to be approved completely through 337s.

These pages are a collection of the ideas and impressions of the Cardinal pilots who frequent this site. This information is anecdotal, informal and may not be completely accurate. The Cardinal Flyers are not certified mechanics and do not guarantee the accuracy of the contents of these pages. Please research and confirm anything that is referenced on these pages with the experts appropriate to your situation.

As always, the Cessna maintenance, operations and flight manuals, and the advice of a certified mechanic and flight instructor, should be your primary sources of information regarding safe maintenance and operation of your aircraft.

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