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A
ADs
Aileron Trim Tab
Aileron Bellcrank
Air Box Repair
Air Duct/Spar
Air filter Gasket
Air filter mods
Alternate Parts sources
Alternate Air Door
Alternator
  Bracket
  '68 CB
  Circuit Breaker
  Circuit Breaker kit
  Debug
  Troubleshoot
  Whine and noises
  OV switch
  Standby
Ammeter blip
Amsafe Install
Antenna Mount
Annual Inspection
Autopilot
  300AP transistors
  300AP hints
  Bellcrank
Avionics Air Scoop

B
Back seat removal
Baffle Mods
Baffle Rebuild
'68 Baffle Mods
Baggage door seal
Baggage latch spring
Baggage Bulkhead
BAS seat belt
Battery lid mod
Bellcrank, Aileron
Belly Cleaning
Bike Rack
Brackett Air Filter
Brake hose FG
Brake master FG
Brake hose RG
Brake Swivel (RG)
'Braly Mod'
Boroscopes
Bulkhead repair ('68)
Bungee (Steering)
Bus Bar repair

C
Camera Windows
Carb Data
Carbon Monoxide
Case mods
CAT tubing replace
Charging Debug
Chart desk/table
Compass leaks
Concorde Lid Mod
Console Repair
Connector options
Console: add-on
Cooling Cylinders
Cooling in Climb
Cover review
Cowl
  '71 mods
  Baffle
  Bumper
  Bumper 2
  Camloc Fasteners
  Camloc Issues
  Camloc Evolution
  Chafing Mods
  Eyelets
  Flap cable replace
  Flap exit ramp
  Flap fences
  Flap bumpers
  Flap Exit
  Flap Effectiveness
  Grommets
  Rubs on Spinner
  Southco fasteners
  Screws
  Custom Inlets
  Inlet Fences
Cylinder Cooling
Cylinder cooling details
Cylinder "doghouse"
Cylinder inspection

D
Defroster fan
D Engine Swap
  FG details
  RG details
  Governor modifications
Display repair
Door
  Fuse damage
  Handles - inside
  Handles - outside
  Hinge reinforcement
  Hinge repairs
  Lubrication
  Locks
  Pin alignment
  Seal replacement
  Seal source
  Spring replacement
  Tightening
Doubler repairs
Drilled yoke
Dual Speaker (overhead)
Dukes Fuel Pump

E
Elevator: see Stabilator
Electrical Noise
Electrical Parts
Electrical Connectors
Elevator Trim Rod clearance
Engine baffle mods
Engine Cables
Engine Gages
Engine mount
Engine swap (D)
Exhaust fairings

F
FG Strut Rebuild
FG Strut Rebuild 2
Firewall Forward mod
FG Jacking
FG Fuel Flow
Flap:
  Adjustment
  Adjust Problems
  Follow-up cable
  Follow-up cable Options
  Motor source
  Noise
  Rigging
  Rigging hints
  Slow
Flood light
Fuel Caps
  Flush Cap rebuild
  Monarch thoughts
  Monarch Install story
  Replacement Options
  Types
Fuel
  Aux Tanks
  Dipstick
  Drain valve
  Dukes Pump(RG)
  Dukes Pump Option
  Feeding unevenly
  Flow FG
  Gage info
  Header Tank leak
  Hose replacement
  Indicator repair
  Pump (Weldon)(RG)
  Quick Drain (FG)
  Shutoff issues
  Shutoff rebuild (FG)
  RG Selector Valve rebuild
  FG Selector Valve rebuild
  Tip Vent
  Vent leak (crossover)
  Weldon Fuel Pump (RG)
'68 Fuse Repair

G
Gap Seals
Gages
Gear Indicator lights
Gear Light Secrets
Gear Magnets
Gear Mirror
Gear pump brushes
Gear pump Diagnosis
Gear pump 'bumps'
Gear Pump Light
Gear pump rebuild '78
Gear wobble (FG)
Governor bracket mods
Governer control lube
Governer plate
Gov plate: One Mech's View
Governer Surge
Grab Handle Clip
Green Goo

H
Handicapped passengers
Handle Clip
Headrests
Headlights
Headlight Replacement
Headliner R & R
Heater improvements
  Exhaust fan
  Bulkhead seal
  Aux heat tube
  Tailcone mods (RG)
  Flow Improvement
  Underseat fans
Heavy Wing
Hoisting
Horton STOL
Hose Standoffs
HP Plus Mod
Hydraulic Hoses (RG)

I
Ignition: Lasar
Injection system
Injector Clamps
Intake Manifold Seal
Intake Manifold Drain
Intercom noise
Interior parts
Interior Rework

J
Jacking the FG
Jacking the RG
Jack options
Jack buying
Jack building
Jacks: my design

K
King display repair
Kinzie presentation
Kinzie install


L
Landing Gear (FG)
Landing Lights
Landing Light Replacement
Lasar Ignition
LED Lights
 Courtesy lights
 Dimming filter
 Gear indicators
 Wing tips
Light (flood)
Lighting troubleshoot

M
Magnets (gear)
Magneto points
Manifold Pressure gauge
Manuals
Mixture cable (Cablecraft)
Mixture Cable Attach
Monarch Fuel Cap Install
Muffler
  Bracket Removal
  Clamp (RG)
  Cracks

N
Nav Light Indicator
Nose Gear
  NG arm pad
  Drag link cracks (RG)
  Door Hinge (RG)
  Door wear
  NG Door Grommets
  Door Grommet option
  Door Bumper
  Scissor bolt shearing
  Shimmy
  Strut Rebuild (RG)
  Strut Rebuild (FG)
  Strut Rebuild 2 (FG)
  Swinging
  Door Triming
  Uplock Roller (RG)

O
Oil Canister issues
Oil Cooler Baffle (RG)
Oil Cooler Info
Oil Cooler gap (RG)
Oil Cooler upgrade (RG)
Oil Draining tricks
Oil Filter (D) Adapter
Oil Filter Cutting
Oil leaks
Oil line: prop
Oil Paths
Oil Pump
Oil Separator
Oil Screen (FG)
Oil Screen (RG)
Omni antenna
Overhaul
Overhead Console Repair
Over Voltage switch
O/V switch wiring
Owner Maintenance

P
Panel forming
Panel Project
Panel Tilt
Paint
  Colin's Paint Story
  Hints and Tips from Guy
  RG Colors
  FG Colors
  Painting templates
Pitot-Static Troubleshooting
Placards
Preflight Inspection
Prop control lube
Prop oil line
Prop oil line fitting
Prop Surge
Prop Torque
PTT options
PTT in Yoke
PWM filter
Pump rebuild: gear

Q

R
Radio noises
Rain leaks
Retractable Gear (RG)
  (Also see 'Gear')
  Alternate Air Door
  Ammeter blip
  Brake Swivel
  Configuration (by year)
  Downlock rebuild
  Gear Leg removal tool
  Gear Lights
  Gear Magnets
  Gear Mirror
  Gear Selector Rebuild
  Gear pump 'bumps'
  Gear pump Diagnosis
  History
  Hoisting
  Internal Leak
  Jacking
  Leg pin removal tool
  Lock Valve rebuild
  Lights
  Main Gear Pin
  Main Rod End
  Main Rod End Sources
  Manifold
  MG up-bumper
  MG Saddle Replace
  MG Saddle Repair
  MG actuator bracket
  NG Door wear
  NG drag link
  NG Hoses
  NG Swinging
  NG Switch wire
  NG arm pad
  NG Door Trim
  Parts (by year)
  Pressure Switch
  Pump brushes
  Pump Bump
  '78 Pump bypass leak
  Pump Internals
  '71-3 Pump Manifold
  Pump rebuild '78
  Pump Shuttle Valve
  Reed switch
  Reed switch rebuild
  Rod End
  Rod End sources
  Schematics
  Selector Rebuild
  Service Bulletins
  Speaker (gear warn)
  Squat switch wire
  Shuttle Valve
  Switch rebuild
  Throttle switch arm
  Throttle switch example
  Troubleshoot
  Uplock Roller (RG)
  Warning cam
  Warning horn
Rear seat removal
Rigging
Rope trick
Rosen Sun visors
Royalite Replacements
Rudder trim

S
SCAT tubing installation
Screw Removal
Seats, rear
Seat belts for 2
Seat pivot
Seat rails
Serial numbers
Service Bulletins
Shimmy dampener
  RG rebuild
  FG issues
  Solutions
  More FG
  FG solution
Shimmy
Shoulder harness
Sniffle Valve
Sill seal installation
Sound Proofing
Sound Insulation
Southco fasteners
Spar
  Cap inspection
  Cap cracks (177)
  Cap cracks (210)
  Carrythrough
  Carry-thru Bottom inspection
  Attach Pins
  Carry-thru Repair
  Repair avoidance
  Replacement
  Bracket Crack
  Servicability
Speaker (overhead)
Speed mods
Spinner Baffle
Spinner Issues
  '68 Spinner
  Paul's Spinner
  Chuck's Spinner
  Rubs on Cowl
STD Temp
Sticking Valve
Steering Bungee
Squat Switch
Springs
  Wing Tiedown Ring
  Door holdopen
Squat Switch
Stabilator
  Balance
  Bracket cracks
  Bracket inspection
  Bracket rework
  Bracket fasteners
  Bushings
  Creaking noises
  More Brackets
  Trim Rod clearance
  Trimming
  Wobble
  '68 Stab attach
Stall switch
Standby Alternator
Standoffs
Starter Troubleshooting
Static System Troubleshooting
S-Tec autopilot
STCs
Step removal
STOL kit
Strobes, adding
Strut rebuild (RG)
Strut Rebuild (FG)

T
Tach cable
Tailcone Bird cover
Tailcone Screw Map
Throttle cable
Throttle cam
Tiedown Ring spring
Tilt in Panel
Turbocharging
  Air Foil Bearings
   Primer
  Checklist
  Heat Exchanger
  Install Info
  FG Virtual tour
  RG Virtual tour
  Paul's pics
  Parts List
  Performance
  Power Setting
  System Overview
  Operations Manual
  Vacuum Seal
  Vince's pics
  Keith's pics
Type Cert Data
U
Uplock Actuator (RG)
Uneven Fuel Feed

V
Vacuum Seal
Valve sticking
Vent Hoses
Vent window crank
 Vent Example
Vernatherm Theory
Vernatherm Fix
Voltage Drop
Voltage Regulator
Voltage (low)
Vortex Generators
VG Installation

W
Water leaks
Wheelchairs
Wheelchair lift
Wheel hub cracks
Whisker antenna
Windshield leaks
Window replacement
Window crank, vent
Wing Air Inlets
Wing Pins
Wing removal
Wing Rigging
Wing smoothing
Wing Tiedown Ring
Wing tip mods
Wing Vent hoses
Wing wiring plug
Wire Standoffs

X

Y
Yoke Drilling
Yoke Bearings
Yoke Bushings

Z
  

The Turbo-Normalizer System


Thanks to Jon McLin who initially put this page together. Keith Peterson


Our Cardinal is equipped with an aftermarket turbonormalizer system. A "turbonormalizer" is a turbocharger system where the compressor only functions to maintain sea level manifold pressure (nominally, 30" Hg) and therefore horsepower. In principle, with a turbonormalizer the engine is stressed no more than a normally-aspirated engine, and thus TBO is unaffected.

Compressing the air has a side-effect of heating it up. As hot air is less dense, some power is lost due to this heating. Many turbocharged and turbonormalized aircraft (and cars and trucks) incorporate an air-to-air intercooler after the compressor to shed this heat of compression, thus maintaining maximum power. Unfortunately, the Cardinal installation does not include an intercooler. Because of this, induction air temperatures run perhaps 75° to 100°F above Outside Air Temperature.

The Lycoming IO-360A is rated at 200 HP @ 28.5" Hg of manifold pressure. Because of this rating, the aircraft with the STC has a redline at 28.5" on the manifold pressure gauge. Additionally, the STC includes a placard to "reduce manifold pressure by 1 inch per 1000 feet above 16,000'". This placard is apparently due to an FAA concern that the fuel pump could not adequately draw fuel at altitude, against sea-level pressure. There are reports that the aircraft is capable of developing 28.5" to at least 25,000!

Although TurboFlite no longer exists, the STC has been purchased by and is now available from Tornado Alley Turbo.

Turbo-Normalizer Block Diagram

The TurboFlite STC incorporates the following major elements:

  • Installation of a Garrett TA04 Turbocharger, 465292-0001/-9001. This turbocharger was originally used in the 78-80 T337 (Turbo Skymaster).
  • Installation of an exhaust wastegate and hydraulic actuator (470842-9004) to allow exhaust gas to bypass the turbo. This unit was also used in the rear engine of all turbocharged Skymasters (T337 and P337).
  • Installation of an Absolute Pressure Controller (470688-9005) to hydraulically vary the wastegate position based upon turbo compressor output pressure. This controller was used in the Cessna 206, 207, 210, and 310.
  • Installation of an oil Scavenge Pump to remove oil from the turbo bearings and return it to the oil sump. This pump is necessary due to the location of the turbo below the engine.
  • Installation of fuel injector nozzle "shrouds", which expose the ambient reference ports on each fuel injector to the compressor pressure.
  • Connection of the Fuel Flow Gauge reference port to the compressor reference line to correct fuel flow measurements. (Fuel Flow is actually a pressure measurement.)
  • Replacement of the stock Stewart-Warner 8406J Oil Cooler with the larger, two-pass Stewart-Warner 8432R Oil Cooler. See the Oil Coolers page for more info.
  • Addition of a spin-on oil filter if the aircraft is not yet so equipped.
  • "Shark Gills" cooling vents on both sides of the lower cowl. This is how you can identify a Cardinal with the Turbo STC when the cowl is on.
Turbo Shark Gills

Besides the items listed above, there are numerous hoses, fittings, brackets, check-valves, etc..

Note that, besides the intercooler, TurboFlite chose not to include a pressurized magneto. With the large Bendix dual magnetos on the later Cardinals, this is not a problem. The smaller Slick magnetos on the earlier Cardinals (or those converted back to the non-dual mag design) are susceptible to misfiring due to arcing within the magneto above around 15,000'. Once the arcing occurs, it get progressively worse due to the carbon tracks left inside the magneto. While Slick does make pressurized magnetos for turbocharged aircraft, they are only available for 6-cylinder engines. Therefore, a turbocharged Cardinal should use Bendix magnetos - be they double-single or single-dual.

Additional Resources


These pages are a collection of the ideas and impressions of the Cardinal pilots who frequent this site. This information is anecdotal, informal and may not be completely accurate. The Cardinal Flyers are not certified mechanics and do not guarantee the accuracy of the contents of these pages. Please research and confirm anything that is referenced on these pages with the experts appropriate to your situation.

As always, the Cessna maintenance, operations and flight manuals, and the advice of a certified mechanic and flight instructor, should be your primary sources of information regarding safe maintenance and operation of your aircraft.



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